Rothenburg ob der Tauber, Germany
Rothenburg is the best preserved walled city in Germany. It is located on the famous Bavarian Romantic Route, halfway between Frankfurt and Munich. It is known for its medieval architecture, 14th-century ramparts, half-timbered houses lining the cobbled streets of the old town, and its 500-year-old wooden altarpiece by Riemenschneider. In the Middle Ages, Rothenburg was the second largest city in Germany. Today, tourism has taken control of this small town. Buses loaded with day-trippers visit Rothenburg during the day. So plan to spend the night and experience the city at the quieter hours of the morning and evening.
There are several “Rothenburg” in Germany. Be sure to drive to Rothenburg ob der Tauber. It takes about 3 hours in Munich and a little less in Frankfurt. The station is located east of the city walls, about 15 minutes walk from the market square.
The city’s unspoiled, unspoiled ramparts include, in addition to the covered walkway above, numerous guard houses and preserved towers.
At the southern tip of Sweden, Malmö radiates a revolutionary architectural path in the future. Although there are some buildings of historical interest, visit Malmö to see how people will live in the future. Green initiatives are of utmost importance, but this does not prevent structures from being attractive. The city of Malmö has even created a bike path behind each building, which seems worthy of its architectural homoguiding. The new facility is mainly located in the western port, a vast reconquered area located in front of the city’s medieval center, which was once one of the largest shipyards in Europe.
Despite its physical location over the Baltic Sea in Sweden, Malmö is well connected to the rest of Europe thanks to the Öresund Bridge, an impressive technical achievement. It’s a good stop on the other side of the Copenhagen Strait before heading to Stockholm for the remaining 4h30.
Building not to be missed: the Turning Torso of Santiago Calatrava also catches the eye. The tallest and most famous building in Malmö, located in the western port, has been voted the world’s best residential building.
Above Öresundstraße is the most famous of these two cities: Copenhagen. Copenhagen combines modernity and antiquity with more gentleness. The city displays architectural styles from the Middle Ages, Renaissance, Baroque, Rococo and 21st century. Since 2000, modern Copenhagen architecture has been created by leading international architects and a number of successful new Danish architects. This new golden age has spawned modern masterpieces, such as Sampension, Kilen, Tietgenkollegiet and the Royal Playhouse, all of which have been awarded.
Copenhagen is well connected as a railway node. Almost all trains between Sweden and Germany stop in Copenhagen. Hamburg, Germany, is about 5 hours and Stockholm, Sweden, just 5:15 on the high-speed line.
Unmissable building: Built in 2008, the Royal Playhouse on the harbor is well worth a visit. Discover what makes the $ 500 million nefuturist Copenhagen Opera house so special. If that were not enough, Denmark’s National Aquarium is a beautiful new building located outside the suburbs.
Although its architecture is not necessarily consistent, Krakow deserves its place on the list, spared by the excessive bombing during the Second World War. Since Prague is for the Czech Republic, Krakow is a gift from Poland for tourism. It’s simply one of the great travel destinations in Europe. Krakow was beautifully rebuilt after its publication in the 13th century and is largely celebrated today. Four hundred years ago, the capital moved from here to Warsaw, but the city remains the cultural and intellectual heart of Poland.
Poland is now included in the Eurail Pass and Krakow is well connected by rail to Wroclaw, Warsaw and other cities. You can reach Krakow from Warsaw around 2:30 am with the high speed train or much longer with slower regional connections.
Krakow’s main market square, Rynek Glowny, is the bustling heart of Krakow and one of the largest squares in Europe. You can not miss it.
Most people think of Prague or Barcelona, if you are talking about Art Nouveau. The little-known Subotica, however, plays a major role in the world of “new art”. Formerly part of the Kingdom of Hungary, this border town of Serbia still has a mixture of cultures, ethnic Hungarians, Serbs and Croats. Subotica reached its golden age in the early twentieth century, when most of its monumental structures were built. The style here is technically the Hungarian version of the Art Nouveau Secession, and there are still 41 buildings.
Subotica is located on the railway line in northern Serbia, about halfway between Budapest and Belgrade. It’s a wonderful stop between the two. Trains only cover the road twice a day, so plan accordingly.
City Hall is an outstanding example of Secession architecture. The synagogue, the Raichle Palace and the shores are not far from their beauty.
One could say that the inscription of Rome on a list of European architecture is too obvious. But really, you can not overestimate the scope of Rome’s architecture. It spans millennia and contains the most important structure of Western civilization: the Pantheon. Much of the classical architecture was developed in Rome and new forms such as arch, dome and chapel were introduced here. Take a look at the Roman forum and the godfathers of all the Roman monuments: the Coliseum. But that does not stop: the buildings of Rome include Romanesque buildings (11th-13th centuries), Renaissance, Baroque, neoclassical and fascist architecture.
All roads lead to Rome, right? Or in this case, the railway lines. After Venice and Florence, and before Naples to the south, you can easily add Rome to your Eurail program.
even 2000 years after its construction, the dome of the Pantheon is the largest unreinforced concrete dome in the world. Once it’s poured, get an ice cream.
With Florence, Italy, art goes before architecture. But this city, the epicenter of the Renaissance, is so rich in culture that its architecture still shines. The city is full of examples of Romanesque, Gothic, Renaissance and 17th century buildings, as well as some periods from the Neoclassical, Rococo and Habsburg-Lorraine periods. Florence deserves its place in all European rail adventures and it will take you at least two days to live in the city.
Florence is ideally located in Tuscany, about halfway between Rome and the north of Italy. It is 1:20 direct route from the Italian capital and less than 2 hours from Milan and Venice with direct high-speed trains from Freccia.
It must be said that although Ghiberti’s baptistery and bronze doors are undoubtedly the most important building in Florence, it is the Duomo of Florence that surpasses both literally and figuratively. The dome of Brunelleschi propelled Italy and the Middle Ages into a new age of the Renaissance.
Another tourist town that is worth it: Carcassonne, France. This medieval fortified town of Languedoc-Roussillon has a history of 2,500 years. Its massive defenses protecting the castle and its surrounding buildings, as well as the streets and the beautiful Gothic cathedral earned it a place on the UNESCO World Heritage List. Carcassonne is located on a rocky hill and is a world of towers, turrets and cobblestones of the thirteenth century – a city of fairy tales. Visit in low season to avoid the crowds.
Trains from Paris reach Carcassonne (via Narbonne) at 5.30 am and Toulouse just over an hour away. The station Carcassonne is located on the northern outskirts. Most points of the center are within 5 to 10 minutes walking distance.
The City of Carcassonne steals the show here. It has picturesque fortifications and more than 3 km of walls with 52 towers!
Helsinki does not appear in too many lists. It does not have a long history or a medieval center. But what it does, it’s fine. Helsinki has museums devoted to Finnish design and architecture of world renown. The styles that shine the most here are modernism, functionalism and Art Nouveau, with which it has the highest concentration of Northern Europe. Art Nouveau or youth architecture, as it is called here, has been interpreted in Finland according to its own form of national romanticism. The 1904 Jugendsali Hall and the 1910 National Museum are some of the finest examples. The works of the famous Finnish architect Alvar Aalto represent the best of modernism.
Helsinki is the hub of the Finnish railroad with connections to Tampere and the former capital Turku. Although the country is slightly cut off from the rest of Europe in terms of rail links, it is worthwhile to come here. Ferries connect Finland with Tallinn, Estonia and Sweden.
Building not to be missed: Eliel Saarinen’s main railway station dating from 1914 is a revelation in the style of late youth. You will surely see this fabulous building if you arrive by train to Helsinki. The church “Rock” of Temppeliaukio was built to an incredibly high level and occupies the second place on the list.
As one of the main cities of Europe around 1500, Nuremberg was a fortress of the Holy Roman Empire. Today, the old town has impressive medieval architecture. This second largest city in Bavaria has half a million inhabitants. A stroll through the charming old streets, half-timbered houses and Gothic churches, all in the shadow of an imperial castle, suggests that it is a much smaller city. Do not forget to eat some of the famous Nuremberg sausages. Visit in December on the occasion of the opening of the largest Christmas market in Germany.
Nuremberg is a simple one-hour train ride from Munich and a little longer from Regensburg (another beautiful old town) or Rothenburg. Direct connections from Hamburg or Berlin are available in less than 5 hours.
The Kaiserburg with the Burggrafenburg and the city buildings of the imperial city are a good starting point. The ramparts of the city are also impressive. The 4 km still standing show why they are among the most impressive medieval fortresses in Europe.
Europe is a great buildings for architecture. From medieval monasteries and Renaissance castles to the most modern design, European architecture is the most diverse in the world.
Modern European Architecture
Expressionist architecture is a twentieth-century European movement that has developed alongside visual and performance expressionist art.
The term Expressionist architecture describes for the first time the activities of the German, Dutch, Austrian, Czech and Danish avant-gardes from 1910 to 1930.
The style was characterized by the early adoption of new materials, formal innovations and very unusual masses, sometimes inspired by natural biomorphic forms and sometimes the new technological possibilities offered by the mass production of bricks, steel and glass.
Expressionist architecture was an individualistic aesthetic dogma and in many ways. Among the lawyers’ common goals are: shape distortion, the pursuit of the new, the idea of architecture as a work of art and the purpose of expressing inner experiences.
Expressionist architecture: an architectural movement that developed in Europe during the first decades of the twentieth century alongside expressionist visual and performing arts.
American Art Deco Architecture
Art deco and streamlined modernism were two key styles of early twentieth-century American architecture.
Art Deco was created during the inter-war period and combines traditional craft motifs with images and materials from the age of the machine.
Art Deco is recognizable by its heavy ornaments, bold geometric shapes and bright colors.
Streamline Modern is an aesthetic created for the first time by industrial designers who have removed the art-deco design from their ornament to the benefit of the aerodynamic concept pure movement and speed developed by scientific thought: it is materialized by cylindrical shapes and long horizontal windows.
The Modern Streamline was both a reaction to Art Deco and a reflection of the economic crisis. The decoration was useless: the sharp angles were replaced by simple and aerodynamic curves.
Streamline Modern: sometimes referred to as Modern Art, a late form of Art Deco design style that appeared in the 1930s. Its architectural style highlights curved shapes, long horizontal lines and sometimes nautical elements.
Art Deco: Decorative art and architecture style of the 1920s and 1930s characterized by bold geometric shapes and simple composition.